捕蝇草怎么养【翻译】

By | 2015年5月29日

捕蝇草资料总结:
来源:http://www.carnivorousplants.org/howto/GrowingGuides/Dionaea.php

个人渣翻,如有什么问题还望指出。

原标题:Growing Dionaea muscipula

Dionaea muscipula is found naturally in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina. The plant is surprisingly adaptable considering its narrow distribution in the wild.

捕蝇草原产地在南卡罗来纳州东部沿海的北方及南方。它那奇怪的适应性导致它只能分布在这个狭长的地带。

The main requirements for growing Dionaea muscipula are:

(1) The plant needs lots of light. Give it full sun if you can. Grow it outside as much as you can. It also makes an excellent indoor plant but requires more light than it can get on a typical house window sill.

(2) The pot with the plant must always be sitting in pure water. If your tap water has a total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 90 ppm (check with your city, water company, well test, or measure with a TDS meter) you can use it for your carnivorous plants. If the TDS is higher than 90, use distilled, reverse osmosis, or clean rain water. Filtering water will NOT remove the dissolved salts.

(3) If the plant is not catching its own food, it needs to be fed in the traps with live insects, rehydrated dried blood worms, or other kinds of fish food high in insect-derived protein that can be conveniently rehydrated. If you use dead food, the traps need to be massaged to stimulate full closure and digestion.

养好捕蝇草的几个重要的关键因素有:
1、非常需要光照,能晒就晒太阳,室内虽然能养好,但是也需要有一个窗台来放
2、盆子需要浇灌纯净水,自来水也行,但是需要90ppm以下,如果为90ppm以上,请用蒸馏水、反渗透水,雨水;注意,过滤水不会滤除融于水中的盐类
3、如果植株自己捉不到东西吃,它就需要扔一些活物、血虫干(喂食血虫干的方法:http://www.carnivorousplants.org/howto/Feeding/FeedingDBWSBS.php,翻译:http://blog.windworkshop.net/?p=793 )、或者一些其他的高蛋白昆虫水化鱼饲料,如果要用死的食物,喂食了之后需要手动模拟活物的信号让捕完整关闭夹子并开始消化(译注:就是用镊子之类的东西每30分钟按压夹子一会,直到夹子完全闭合为止)。

If you grow your plants indoors or just bought a plant please see the Check List for Growing Dionaea muscipula. If your plant needs repotting please see Dionaea Leaf Pullings Step-by-Step. A well kept VFT will need to be repotted every year or so.

如果你想在家中种植或者只是想购买植株请看Check List for Growing Dionaea muscipula。如果你想换盆,请看Dionaea Leaf Pullings Step-by-Step(译注:上半部分是好端端的换盆教程,下半部分就神奇的变成了叶插教程)一颗生长良好的捕蝇草大约一年换一次盆。

Dionaea muscipula isn’t very picky about soil. It grows well in pure Sphagnum moss (live or from dried), pure Sphagnum peat, and the standard 1:1 peat:sand “CP mix”. Avoid perlite, pumice, and other potentially salty soil components. What does matter is how tall the pots are and consequently how far the crown of the plant is from the water level. The plants do not enjoy being soggy but must always be wet. The wetter the soil the taller the pot. In shorter pots the soil should be more sandy. Avoid pure Sphagnum moss or pure peat in short pots. In any case the water level should always be more than 5 cm (2 inches) below the surface of the soil.

捕蝇草对土壤不是很挑剔,它在纯水苔(不论死活)、纯泥炭以及1:1的泥炭:沙子的混合食虫植物土(CP混合土)中都能长得很好。避免使用珍珠岩、浮石以及其他有可能会溶解盐在水中的材料。真正重要的是盆要高(盆的高度决定了水位的高度),植物需要湿润的介质,但不是轻易能挤出水的湿
水,土壤,深盆。在矮盆中应该放多些沙子。避免在矮盆中使用纯水苔或者纯泥炭,任何情况下水位应该低于盆表面5厘米

Sow seeds of Dionaea muscipula on the surface of your medium of choice. About 3 mm of washed quartz sand over CP mix works well as does a layer of finely chopped live sphagnum moss over CP mix. The live sphagnum can overgrow the plants so keep a close eye on the seedlings if you use it. Finely chopped long fibered sphagnum over CP mix or CP mix alone also work well germinating seeds. The main problem is the nutrients in peat encourage the growth of cyanobacteria (AKA bluegreen algae) that can overgrow the small, very slow growing seedlings. Washing the peat helps cut down on cyanobacteria and moss. However the nutrients in the peat, what small amount there is, give the small seedlings a boost. The soil should be saturated with pure water.

播种捕蝇草种子时应播种在覆盖有3mm中等大小水洗石英砂的CP混合土上,石英砂的效果好过活水苔,也好过纯CP混合土。由于使用水苔会长绿藻之类的东西,播种的时候需要密切关注。如果确定要使用水苔,它的发芽效果会好过CP混合土。接下来主要面临的问题就是泥炭土中的营养会促使水苔长绿藻的问题(译注:原文中提到的是bluegreen algae“蓝藻”),他们会长满基质表面并使植物生长缓慢。清洗泥炭有助于减少绿藻和苔藓,然而清洗过的泥炭还是会有残留的少量营养成分,不过这些微量的营养成分能有助于幼苗的生长。土壤是用纯水浸透的。

What you do after sowing the seeds depends on what works best for you. Everyone has their own preferred routine. I lightly spray the seeds with water and put the pots in plastic zip-lock bags under but not too close to florescent lights. A temperature between 20°C to 25°C (70°F to 80°F) works best. After the seedlings get a few true leaves (the ones with traps), I remove the pots from the plastic bags and move them to bright terrarium or greenhouse. Please see Sowing Seeds Step-by-Step for more details on starting seeds.

当你播种之后应该干些什么。每个人都有自己喜欢的做法。我的做法是给种子用喷壶喷一些水,套袋闷着,放在荧光灯下合适的位置。温度在20-25度之间比较合适。当长出一些捕虫夹之后,我将植株从塑料袋中移除来放入明亮的玻璃容器或者温室中。详情请参考Sowing Seeds Step-by-Step(http://www.carnivorousplants.org/howto/Propagation/SeedsSBS.php

The seedlings are very slow growing. It could easily take 5 years to get a mature plant from seed if they are not fed regularly. Experts with greenhouses can get mature or close to mature plants in three years. You can get a mature plant in two years if you feed it in the traps as much as the plant can handle. But no one grows Dionaea from seed commercially except to find new varieties. The usual technique for commercial propagation is sterile culture called tissue culture or micropropagation. They propagate only the very best selected plants which may be one in a thousand from seed. Expert growers may also fertilize their plants. This is tricky to do safely. DO NOT fertilize your plants unless you don’t care if you kill them. Feed them in the traps with Dried Blood Worms.

New Dionaea seedlings will tend to grow for about 4 months then stop growing. They are expecting winter to start a that point. They can be tricked by keeping them warm under intense light and feeding heavily. As soon as a new trap opens, feed it with a small piece of hydrated dried blood worm. When it reopens remove the remains of the previous meal. That will probably result in it closing the trap. When the trap reopens again in the next day or so, feed it again.

种植一棵捕蝇草实生苗有大约4个月的生长期,之后就会停止生长,因为冬天来了。你可以通过温暖的环境,强烈的光源以及大量的喂食来欺骗它们。当一个新的夹子打开的时候,马上给予喂食,吃完后重新打开立刻清理残渣,清理完的时候夹子刚好关上,等第二天夹子重新打开的时候再进行喂食。

If you live in USDA zone 8 or warmer, as much as possible, try to grow your larger seedlings and mature plants outside. They will grow best in full sun if you live in an area that is humid or cool in the summer. If where you live is hot and dry, full morning sun and then part shade is appreciated. The use of 10% or 20% shade cloth with full sun works well (if you can find it—most shade cloth is 50% or more and that is too shady).

如果是生活在美国农业8区(另外找到的中文资料,包含国内对应区域划分:食虫植物过冬,以及 USDA Hardiness Zone 官方介绍:USDA Zone)及更加温暖的地方,尽量将植株培育得大些以及野放。如果你住在一个者夏天潮湿或者凉爽的地方,它们将会在全日照的情况下长得最好。如果你住的地方炎热干燥,在早上接受日照,中午之后遮阴会更好。使用10%-20%的遮阴网效果比较好。(你可以发现,当遮阴超过50%就太暗了)

In USDA zone 7 it is problematic growing Dionaea outside without a heated greenhouse but it can be done. During the winter, if the temperatures don’t stay below freezing for more than a week at a time you can keep the plants outside fully exposed to the rain and snow unless there is an early or late freeze. The plants will survive being frozen solid for a week or longer if they are fully dormant and protected from drying out. If they are not fully dormant, freezing weather can kill them. When the plants are being overly protected or have started to grow and then get frozen they are easily killed. Do not let them dry out as the biggest danger is freeze-drying. Use of pine needle mulch or row cover cloth helps prevent freeze-drying.

如果在美国农业7区,可以野放到冬天而不需要有加热设备的温室,当冬天来临时,如果气温不低于零度约1周的时间,你可以野放暴露在雨雪之中,除非在早晚有结冰的情况。当植株进入全休眠并且没有进入变干保护,它可以存活在结冰的土壤中。如果它没有进入全休眠,寒冷的天气将会杀死它们,当植株进入过度变干保护或者在开始生长时突遇寒流同样很容易被置于死地,在干冷时不让它保持干燥同样很危险,使用松针或者毯子覆盖能防止干冷。

In very cold climates (USDA zone 6 and colder) the plants will require substantial protection if grown outside. It may be best to put the plants in a heated greenhouse, a south facing window of a garage, or cover them with a foot of straw or pine needles during the winter. Although it is probably a good idea to supplement the light if you have the plants in a garage window during the winter I do not recommend bringing them into the house or basement and putting them under lights for the winter. It will get them out of sync with the seasons. It is better to just keep them indoors under lights all the time than to switch back and forth.

在气候更冷的地方(6区以及更冷的地方),在室外栽培植物就需要大量的保护措施,在冬天这些措施最好是把植物放在有加热设备的温室中,一个窗口朝南的车库,盖上1英寸厚的稻草或者松针。如果你的植物放在车库的窗边,或许还有一个好方法是给植物补光,我不推荐把植株带进屋子或者地下室中放置在灯光下,这会让他们无法感知季节的变化。好方法还是将他们放在等下随着时间转向以模拟太阳的变化。

Dionaea appreciates seasonal light cues. Winters along the Carolina coast are relatively mild and dry so you do not need to refrigerate the plant or otherwise force it into dormancy with cold. It just needs enough natural light to know what season it is. You know the plants are getting enough light cues when they send up flowers in the spring. You can accomplish this by having them in a room that gets good sunlight around sunrise and not having your plant lights come on until 7 or 8 AM. I use 25W of fluorescent lighting per square foot of growing area and keep my lights on 16 hours a day. I also use 4000K bulbs because my plants have always done better or at least looked better to me than ones grown under 6500K bulbs. My plants grown this way are 8 years old from sterile culture and grow continuously. They have been repotted each time the growth point hits the edge of the pot, which is about every 18 months.

捕蝇草喜欢根据光照来判断季节。卡罗莱纳周的海岸的气候是相对温和和干燥的,你可以不用让它冬眠,或者放进冰箱制造冷气使其强制冬眠。它只需要足够的自然光让它知道现在是什么季节。你要知道当它感受到充足的光照时它就会像在春天一样开花。你可以让室内的植株在7-8点前让植株接受太阳光,然后再让植物补光灯进行照射。每平方英尺我用一盏25w的荧光灯,每天照射16小时。我同样使用4000k色温的灯泡,因为这样植物会长得很好,至少好过6500k的灯泡。我就这么养了8年的植株,从无菌栽培开始一直长到现在。当它们的生长点触碰到盆边缘时就给它们换盆,大约是18个月更换一次。

Another option I have considered but not tried is using a light timer that adjusts the on time according to the date. Since the timers are designed to turn lights on at night, set the timer six months and 12 hours out of phase with the current date and time. This will result in the lights being on during the day and in phase with the current season. You probably will need 50W of fluorescent lighting per square foot of growing area for the plants to get enough light. With the amount of heat generated by the lights I would put the plants in rather large pots and use up-side-down jugs of water in a tray to keep them from drying out.

我还有一个没有实现的想法是使用一个灯光时间控制机根据日期来调整。定时器设定在夜间开灯,根据当前的日期和时间设定在6个月中的12个小时的补光,其结果就是让光照时间符合当前季节的日照时间。你可能会需要到没平方英尺50w的荧光灯来满足植物对光照的需求。伴随着光照会产生热量,我就将植物放到歌稍大的盆子中,将一个底朝天的水罐放在托盘上保持干燥。

— John Brittnacher

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