捕蝇草灯养

By | 2015年6月10日

食虫植物(捕蝇草、猪笼草、茅膏菜)的灯养知识

原标题:LED植物光源【翻译】

原文链接:http://www.carnivorousplants.org/howto/SoilsWater/Lighting.LED.php

LED lighting is an emerging technology. Unlike the mature technology of fluorescent lighting where we do not expect significant changes in the future, LED lighting technology is constantly changing. The goals of LED lighting companies is to make lighting more energy efficient and pleasant for humans. Lighting for plants is not on their radar although some manufacturers will do custom components for plant lights.

LED光源是一个新兴的科技。不同于在以后不会有什么变化的技术成熟的荧光光源。LED光源的技术是在不停的变化的。LED生产商的目标是制造对于我们来说节能且舒适的光源。尽管植物光源不是他们的目标,但是还会有一些厂家会定制一些植物光源的组件。

There are mainly two types of LEDs manufactured today for lighting. The technology being phased out for general human lighting uses discrete single colored LEDs. To get white light these lights have a mix of blue, green, and orange LEDs producing a spectrum similar to the newest technology fluorescent lights. Single colored LEDs are still made for special applications such as traffic lights and architectural and mood lighting. Blue architectural lights are appropriate for plant lighting but the red architectural LEDs are too orange. The deep red wavelength needed for plants is not in one of efficiency sweet spots for LEDs so they are less common.

当下主要有两种LED产品,一种是开始被淘汰的我们普通照明所采用的分立彩色LED技术。为了得到白光去混合蓝、绿和橙色的LED用以生产出类似最新技术的荧光灯的光谱。单色LED依旧在诸如交通灯、建筑以及烘托分为上有着自己的应用。蓝色建筑灯(译注:这里所说的建筑灯指的是装饰建筑物外观的夜景用的等)一定程度上可以用做植物光源,但红色建筑灯太黄。深红色的波长适合植物,但不是最有效的植物吸收位点,所以并没有什么卵用。

The dominant type of LED for lighting manufactured today is the white LED. These LEDs work like fluorescent lights. Fluorescent lights use high voltage and mercury vapor to produce UV light which is converted to visible light by phosphors deposited on the inside of a glass tube. White LEDs work the same way but instead of producing UV light they produce intense blue light via semiconductor light emitting diodes. The blue light is passed through material coated with or embedded with phosphors to convert most of the blue light to longer wavelength colors. You can tell white LEDs by the fact that when they are off you can see the yellow-orange phosphors.

现今主流的LED产品是白色LED。这种LED的光很像荧光灯的光。荧光灯使用高压电和水银蒸汽产生紫外线,不可见的紫外线激发玻璃管壁上的荧光粉转化为可的见光。白色LED则使用类似的方式替代产生紫外光,它通过发光二极管来产生强烈蓝光。蓝光穿过涂有或嵌有荧光粉的材料将大部分的蓝色光转化成波长更长的颜色。你可以把它称作白色LED,但事实上,当他们关掉以后可以看到黄色或者橙色的荧光粉。

For more information on the technical aspects of how LED lights work please see the Wikipedia LED and Wikipedia LED lamp articles.

关于更多的LED灯工作的技术问题可以看看Wikipedia LEDWikipedia LED lamp的文章。


White LEDs
White LED chips. LED bulb manufacturers mount these chips in bulbs also consisting of a power supply, massive heat sink, diffusers, and connectors. The bulbs are expensive because of the cost of all the components unique to LED bulbs. Images from the Bridgelux RS Array Series, Product Data Sheet DS25 and the Philips LUXEON K Datasheet DS102.

白色LED芯片,LED灯泡产品由一个安装这种芯片的灯泡,加上电源、大规模散热片、漫射器(译注:灯罩)、连接器组成。这种LED灯泡因为使用了很多特制的部件所以非常昂贵。图中展示的是Bridgelux RS Array Series(译注:普瑞光电RS阵列系列,面光源),型号DS25,以及飞利浦LUXEON K DS102

Strip LED lighting
White LED strip lights. The strip is 10mm wide with three type 2030 LEDs per 25mm. It takes three of these strips to replace one T5-HO fluorescent light bulb.

白色LED灯带。这个灯带有10mm宽,每25mm安装3个2030LED。三条这样的灯带可以替换T5-HO荧光灯。


When deciding on the type of lighting for plants you need to first ask yourself, why are you growing the plants. If you are growing the plants because you enjoy seeing them then you would want to use lighting technologies designed for humans. If you do not care what the plants look like then there are very efficient plant lights that make the plants look black or brown. The plants look this color because they are absorbing and using all the light. You can also go somewhere in between and use both kinds of lighting with the plants being somewhat off in color. Maybe you like purple plants.

当决定了你需要的植物灯类型,你先想清楚,为什么你要种植物,如果你种植物因为你喜欢看它们,你还是使用为人设计的光源。如果你不关心植物长什么样,那么一盏高效的植物灯会让植物看起来比较暗。植物看起来像这种颜色是因为它们吸收并利用所有的光线。你同样可以使用介于这两种之间的光,植物看起来会缺少些颜色,或许你会喜欢紫色的植物。

White LED lighting.

白色LED光源

For plants you want to appear in their natural colors, the best LED lighting is the kind designed for home use. The white LEDs with phosphors are being made to mimic halogen lighting. That is, unlike with fluorescent lights, LED lights have broad spectrum phosphors giving a more natural light.

你想要看到植物自然的颜色最好是使用为家庭设计的LED光源。现在生产的白色LED使用荧光粉模拟卤素灯。它不同于荧光灯,LED灯拥有更广的光谱的荧光粉产生更自然的光线。(译注:个人觉得这个指的是3500k-4000k色温的LED,往上就太惨白了,往下就太黄了)

An issue with LED bulbs is the “inexpensive” ones generally available have a color rendering index (CRI) of less than 85. What is missing with these bulbs is the deep red that the plants appreciate. The 95 CRI bulbs have their peak light output near the red peak absorption of chlorophyll but the bulbs cost twice as much as 80 CRI bulbs. The 95 CRI bulbs are considered specialized products and are not as easy to find as the consumer grade 80 CRI bulbs.

一个LED灯泡的问题通常是“便宜”的灯产生的CRI显色指数少于85。这种灯缺少植物所需的深红色光。CRI为95的灯泡拥有的峰值光线接近叶绿素吸收的红色峰值,但是成本也是80CRI灯泡的两倍。95CRI的灯泡可以认为是专业级的产品但不像80CRI的消费级这么好找。

The best feature of LED lighting is it is inherently directional. You can choose bulbs appropriate for your needs without having to resort to fixtures with fancy reflectors and mirrors. LED spot lights do work best for plants that hold out their leaves more-or-less horizontally. You could use an LED spot light above a Nepenthes plant, a large pot of Drosera or Dionaea, or as lighting for a hexagon terrarium. However, the lack of light dispersion can also be a disadvantage. The beam of light is so narrow it would not work well with pitcher plants such as Heliamphora even if the plants were surrounded by mirrors.

LED灯的最大特点是有明确的方向性。你可以选择你所需要的而不是那些花哨的带各种反光板和镜子的灯。LED射灯对于植物来说很很好,或多或少能支持植物的水平方向的叶子。你可以用一盏LED射灯放在猪笼草,大盆的茅膏菜或者捕蝇草,或是作为照明的六边形水晶球(译注:这个乱入的东西是什么鬼……)之上。不过缺乏散射光是个缺点。光束很窄以至于养猪笼草不会像太阳瓶子草那样好,哪怕是在植物周围放置的镜子也不行。

Another good feature of LED lighting is the light and the lamps are cooler than fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent lights are more efficient at 35°C air temperature and the fixtures tend to trap heat which in turn heats the plants below. LEDs do generate heat and start degrading when they get hot. Care must be taken to make sure they get enough air circulation to keep them cool. Under ideal conditions, LEDs will normally lose 30% of their brightness after they have been in use 16 hours a day for 4 to 8 years depending on the exact lamps used. If the LEDs get too hot they will lose their brightness much quicker.

LED灯的另外一个优点是光线和散热器比荧光灯好。荧光灯的在35℃的室温下工作会更有效率但灯具的陷阱热效应(译注:冷气会自发的向热的地方流动的效应)会反过来加热下方的植株。LED灯会产生热量,当变热时就会老化。必须注意并确保他们有足够的空气循环以保持凉爽。在理想条件下,在每天使用16小时,使用4-8年的情况下,灯通常衰减30%的亮度。如果灯过热,它们的亮度会衰减的更快。

A problem with white LED lighting is the bulbs are expensive and the lumens per watt is low compared to the most efficient fluorescent lighting. For home lighting the story is different because they are very cost effective compared to incandescent and halogen lighting. The more you pay for electricity the more you need to use LED lighting for your home. But this is not the case as a replacement for the best fluorescent lighting for plants. T8 form factor LEDs are too dim, have too low a color rendering index, and cost too much to be considered for plant lighting.

还有一个问题是LED灯比较昂贵,每瓦的流明数比最高效的荧光灯要低。在家庭中,这个情况就不同了,因为相比起卤素灯和荧光灯,它的费效比还是很好的。你的家里的电费越多就越需要LED灯。但这对于植物来说并不是替换荧光灯的最好方法。T8结构的LED灯太暗了,考虑作为植物光源的话CRI太低,成本也高。

LED strip lighting is an interesting new LED product. You can buy adhesive-backed LED strip lights, stick them to the bottom of a cabinet or on anything else, hook them up to a 12 volt power supply and you have a nice source of light. In your house you can have supplemental or task lighting in places and ways that are not easy with other lighting technologies. Water-proof LED strip lighting can even be used in water features and other wet locations. Unfortunately, for plants good quality white LED strip lighting is only cost effective in situations where you cannot use T5 or T8 fluorescent lighting and it may not even be more cost effective compared to compact fluorescents unless the CFL’s are generating too much heat for your plants. Depending on the strip lights you choose it takes 2 to 8 feet of strip lighting to replace one 26 W CFL or to 8 to 30 feet to replace one 4 foot T5-HO bulb.

LED灯带是一个有趣的新产品。你可以买背部有胶带的LED灯带,将他们贴在机柜或者其他东西的底部,连接上电源就可以作为一个很好的光源使用了。在你的家中你可以用作补充照明或者技术照明,安装在其他照明器具不容易装上的地方。防水LED灯带甚至可以用在水景或者潮湿的地方。不幸的是,优质的白色植物灯是唯一符合费效比的。你无法和T5或者T8比,T5和T8的费效比甚至比节能灯还高,除非节能灯能为你的植物产生热量。根据你选择的不同的灯条,约2-8英尺替换一盏26w的节能灯,或者8-30英尺替换一根4英尺的T5-OH灯。


Light intensity from a Feit PAR30, 15W, LED bulb at 8 inches (20 cm), 10 inches (25 cm), and 12 inches (30 cm) from the bulb.

Feit PAR30 15W的LED灯,使用8英寸(20cm),10英寸(25cm)和20英寸(30cm)的灯泡的光强度对比
LED dispersion

(译注:图为不同的灯在固定高度上距离光中心点的光强)
The 10000 to 20000 lux working distance for this LED spot light is about 11 inches (28 cm) above plants such as Dionaea and Drosera. At that distance the useful growing area is 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter. This bulb has a rated beam angle of 38°. This is considered wide for LEDs. Be sure to check the beam angle of any LED spot/flood lights you get.

10000到20000勒克斯,LED的工作时距离捕蝇草和茅膏菜为11英寸(28cm),在这个距离上的有效种植面积为直径8英寸(20cm)的圆形,这种灯泡有38°的额定光束角。这是被广泛用于LED灯具的。记得检查LED射灯/泛光灯的额定光束角。


The bottom line on white LED lighting is it is not as good as T5-HO lighting in situations where you can use T5-HO. However in situations were T5-HO lighting would not work or work well there are lots of creative things you can do with LED lighting.

白色LED灯的底线不如T5-OH灯的时候你可以使用T5-OH灯,然而在许多有创造性的事情上T5-OH灯无法或不能正常工作,这时就可以使用LED灯来照明。

Colored LED lighting.

有颜色的LED灯。

For growing plants commercially or in sterile culture, the color they appear to be under grow lights is not a factor. All a commercial grower is concerned about is raising the best plants for the least amount of money. Commercial growers can cut their electric bills for plant lighting roughly in half by using colored LED lighting instead of fluorescent lighting because they essentially pay only for the light the plants need. For a sterile culture nursery that can amount to a savings of several thousand dollars or euros per year.

对于商家或是无菌培养的植物,植物灯的颜色不是他们关心的因素。商家更关心用更少的钱培养出更好的植物。商业种植着可以通过使用彩色LED照明替代荧光灯照明减少在电费上的一半的支出。因为他们只支付的完全用于植物需要的光的费用。对于无菌培养,每年可以节省数千美元或欧元。

The trouble is figuring out how much and what mix of light is the best for the plants. With white human-oriented lighting you can just shove a Lux meter under the lights and adjust them accordingly. With the blue and deep red LEDs the Lux meter will not give a meaningful measure of plant-available light.

麻烦在于需要多少以及需要混合什么光对植物最好。白色的人性化光照你可以根据光照计来调整光照强度,而光照计对调整植物照射的深红色和蓝色光却无能为力。

Another factor is 660 nm deep red LED lights are not readily available. They are a custom item because they are too dark for human use. The 620 nm red LEDs that are commonly available are too orange to be fully effective for plants. The common 460 nm blue LEDs are almost perfect for plants.

另一个因素是深红色660nm的LED灯不容易获得(译注:某宝:风太大我听不清)。它属于定制项目,因为对于人来说太暗了。620nm的红色LED通常容易获得并且可以产生很橙黄的光,对于植物效果拔群。常见的460nm蓝色LED对于植物来说几乎是完美的

Unfortunately we cannot turn to our indoor farming friends for help on how much and what ratio of colors of LED lighting are best for plants. They find their plants grow better under T5-HO lighting than they do under LED lighting at the same power usage per unit of growing area. This is because (I am told) they find their plants also need white lighting to grow the way they want them to grow. Using white LEDs blows any cost advantage of LEDs over fluorescent lighting.

很不幸我没法给我们室内养殖的朋友在光的颜色的比例上更多的帮助。他们发现他们的植物在相同电源相同种植面积下T5-OH灯下比LED灯下生长得更好。因为他们(我说的)希望植物能在白光下生长。使用白色LED比荧光灯更具成本优势。

Because the cost of electricity in Europe is more than twice the typical cost within North America, European commercial growers have been doing a lot of experimentation with LEDs. Andreas Wistuba uses custom-made water-proof LED strip lights at various ratios of LED colors. He has found there is no one ratio of colors that work for all his plants—some kinds like extra blue light, others hate it. He has also struggled with variable quality of the strip lights he has received from his suppliers. It is only worth while because using colored strip lighting saves him thousands of euros per year in electricity costs.

因为在电力消耗上,欧洲的电力消耗是典型北美的两倍,欧洲的商业种植者已经做了很多关于LED的实验。Andreas Wistuba使用定制的防水LED灯条使用了不同比例的颜色。他发现没有一个合适的比例适用于所有的植物——有的植物喜欢蓝色,有的则不喜欢。他还在努力,它从他的供应商那里收到质量参差不齐的灯条。唯一值得的是,使用这些彩色灯条可以节省他每年数千欧元的电费。

As LED lighting technology matures it looks like a mix of blue, white, and deep red LEDs will work very well as general plant lights. The ratio of white LEDs can also be adjusted for the level light required for humans to see the plants more or less in natural coloration. It only takes 10 to 15% white LEDs in a mix of blue and deep red LEDs for the plants to have almost a natural look.

随着照明技术的成熟,它看起来是蓝色、白色、深红色的LED混合的灯条,这种组合的灯条很适合作为植物光源。白色LED的比率可以已我们看到植物的自然色调为准进行调整。它只需要混合10%到15%的白色LED,配合蓝色和深红LED就可以呈现植物的自然颜色。


Colored LED lighting for sterile culture plants.

彩色LED使用在无菌培养中。
LEDs in tissue culture
The use of LEDs for sterile culture plants can actually be better than fluorescent lighting if the ratio of deep red, blue, and white LEDs are what the plants appreciate. The ratio that works best for one genus and even species may not be good for another. To inspect the plants it is necessary to have a source of white light such as an LED flash light, head lamp or the old fluorescents.

使用LED进行无菌培养实际上比荧光灯照明更好,如果深红、蓝色、和白色的比例适合,植物会很喜欢。对于一种植物合适的比例对反而不利于另外一种。要检查植物有必要的白色光源如LED闪关灯、头灯或旧荧光灯。

Notice the light dispersion and intensity distribution on the wall at the end of the benches. For LED lighting the shelves need to be farther apart than with fluorescents to get even lighting for the plants. Photo © Andreas Wistuba.

注意在墙壁和桌子的交界处的光散射和光强度分布。安装LED的架子离植物的距离要比荧光灯远一些。图片来自Andreas Wistuba.

— John Brittnacher

(译注:以下是页面右侧的内容)

For definitions and an introduction to plant lighting, please see the Indoor Plant Lighting page.

This page covers the special topic of when LEDs are a better choice for plant lighting than fluorescent lighting.

关于定义和植物照明的介绍,请参阅 Indoor Plant Lighting页面。

本页面是覆盖了关于LED照明比荧光灯照明好的内容。


Chlorophyll Absorption
Chlorophyl Spectrum
Relative spectral response of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs mainly blue and red light. Plants appear green because they reflect green light.

叶绿素的吸收光谱图,叶绿素吸收的主要是蓝色和红色,之所以呈绿色是因为叶绿素反射绿色光。

Spectral Power of light from a 95 color rendering index, 3000 K, white chip LED.

显色指数为95,色温3000k,白色光芯片LED的光(波)谱(长)功(分)率(布)
95 CRI LED
This high CRI LED provides a wide spectrum of light with peaks at the preferred wavelengths of chlorophyll.

这种高CRI的LED提供宽光谱的峰值时叶绿素首选的波长。

Spectral Power of light from an 80 color rendering index, 3000 K, white chip LED.

显色指数为80,色温3000k,白色光芯片LED的光(波)谱(长)功(分)率(布)
80 CRI LED
A 5000 K LED would have a higher 465 nm peak and more green light.

一个5000k的LED会提供高于465nm的峰值以及更绿的光。

(译注:国内能查得到的资料里边大部分5630、5730等SMD封装的光谱图基本就长这样,当然有CRI95的,某宝查不到,google查到了北京有一家生产5630 CRI95的在外国卖1美元一片,对比一下国内那些1-3毛钱的5630/5730简直不能看……)

Spectral Power of light from a 3000 K T5-HO fluorescent bulb with an 85 color rendering index.

3000K色温,CRI85的T5-OH荧光灯光谱图
T5-HO 3000K
Spectrum from an 85 CRI, 800 series phosphor T5-HO bulb. Note that the vertical axis a relative scale.

CRI85的T5-OH 800系列荧光灯,注意纵轴的相对刻度(译注:在哪0 0?)。


Comparison of the efficiency of fluorescent and LED lighting technologies.

荧光灯和LED的技术参数比较

Bulb 灯泡 CRI Watts 功率 Lumens* 流明
Lumens*
per Watt 每瓦流明数
CFL 1 节能灯
82 26 1365 53
T5-HO 2 85 54 4650 88
PAR30 LED 3 95 15 880 59
PAR30 LED 4 80 15 790 53
PAR AgroLED 5,10 n/a 12 850 71
T8 LED 6 83 17 1700 100
T8 AgroLED 7,10 n/a 22 1248 57
LED Strip Light 8 >80 3/ft 152/ft 52
LED Strip Light 9 >80 7.5/ft 575/ft 75

* Initial lumens for LEDs, mean lumens for fluorescent bulbs. LED bulbs do decrease in intensity as they age but not as quickly as fluorescent bulbs. Expect a 30% decrease in lumens after 4 to 8 years of use at 16 hours a day.

初始LED的流明数,荧光灯的平均流明数LED亮度衰减的速度没有荧光灯那么快,预计使用4-8年,每天使用16小时将会衰减30%。
1 GE FLE26HT3/2/841
2 Sylvania FP54/841/HO/ECO
3 Sylvania LED15PAR30/DIM/P/930/Fl40 (41 lm/w after 4 years)
4 Feit 15PAR30L/LEDG5 (37 lm/w after 5 years)
5 Sunlight Supply 901430 (7 red/3 blue/2 white LEDs)
6 Feit T4817/LEDCL/41K
7 Sunlight Supply 901422 (red LEDs)
8 Flexfire Colorbright Warm White LED strip light 暖白灯条
9 Flexfire Industrial Ultra Bright™ Warm White LED Strip Light (requires a heat sink) 加装散热片的暖白灯条
10 Not full spectrum so lumen rating may not be comparable to other bulbs listed. 没有全光谱,所以流明数对于其他的灯没有太大的参考作用。


Comparison of the dispersion of light from a PAR30 LED compared to a two-bulb fluorescent fixture.

光从PAR30 LED与另外一种灯泡的光散布比较图
LED and Fluorescent dispersion

The light intensity distribution was measured 12.5 inches (32 cm) from the LED bulb and 8 inches (20 cm) from the fluorescent bulbs. At those distances the fluorescent fixture illuminated a growing area 11 inches (28 cm) wide and as long as the bulbs while the LED illuminated a growing area 7 inches (18 cm) in diameter. It would take eight 15 watt LED spot lights using a total of 120 watts to provide as much light as two T5-HO bulbs using 108 watts.

光强度的散布图,来自于12.5英寸(32cm)的LED灯和8英寸(20cm)的荧光灯比较。在相同距离上荧光灯的照射生长区域为11英寸(28cm)宽,而LED的照射生长距离为7英寸(18cm)的直径。这意味着要使用8个15W的LED射灯共计120W提供的光线相当于2个T5-OH共计108W的荧光灯。

The fluorescent fixture is a four bulb T5-HO Tek 44 using only the inner two bulbs. (Data were measured with a Lux meter, averaged and smoothed.)

以上测试的灯泡是4个一组的T5-OH灯和2个一组的Tek 44灯泡(数据使用勒克斯表以及经过平滑处理)。

Peak lighting from a PAR30 LED at various distances as compared with a two-bulb fluorescent fixture.

在不同距离上使用PAR30 LED和双灯光荧光灯的照明峰值对比。
LED Lux by distance

Distances are in inches. Remember this is peak light level. The fluorescent fixture is a T5-HO Sun Blaze 42. (Data were measured with a Lux meter, averaged and smoothed.)

距离单位为英寸。请记住这是水平光照,荧光灯是T5-OH Sun Blaze 42。(数据使用勒克斯表以及经过平滑处理)。

Discrete LEDs in an LED plant light fixture.

分立式LED在植物照明器具中。
LEDs
The LED on the left is a white LED with phosphors. The LED on the right is a colored LED. This is “old” LED technology. The LED chips are mounted on a ceramic holder under a plastic bubble.

左边的LED是白色的使用荧光粉的LED。右边的是彩色LED,这是“老旧”的LED技术。LED芯片安装在陶瓷支架上,支架下方有泡沫塑料支撑。

Discrete LED light fixture turned on.

分立式LED灯开启。

LEDs on

This fixture has 50% deep red, 20% blue, 10% orange, 10% red, and 10% white LEDs. It is a meter long and uses 156 watts. To a human eye the plants have a color close to natural but to a digital camera the plants are purple. The manufacturer claims 80% of light emitted by the fixture is potentially absorbed by plants.

这个灯具由50%深红、20%蓝色、10%橘黄、10%红色和10%白色组成。灯具长1米,功率为156W。肉眼看起来植物比较接近自然色,而数码相机拍出来则偏粉色。制造商声称80%的光线或许可以被植物吸收。

Under-bench supplemental lighting in a greenhouse.

在长凳上进行补充照明的温室。
Greenhouse LED lighting

Plant recently out of sterile culture can hardened off under greenhouse benches with supplemental lighting. Photo © Andreas Wistuba.

刚离开无菌培养的苗可以在温室的长凳上补光驯化。照片来自Andreas Wistuba。

The under-bench greenhouse plants at night.

晚上的长凳温室。
Greenhouse LED lighting
Photo © Andreas Wistuba.

照片来自Andreas Wistuba。

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